Home Equity Tax Deduction Eliminated in 2018 | Tax Lawyers News

The Home Equity Tax Deduction used to be one of the most common deductions used by US taxpayers. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 eliminated this deduction. Let’s take a brief look at the Home Equity Tax Deduction and what its elimination may mean for your US tax return.

Home Equity Tax Deduction: What are Home Equity Loans and Home Equity Lines of Credit?

A Home Equity Loan is a loan which uses the borrower’s equity in his home as a collateral for the loan.

A Home Equity Line of Credit or HELOC is a loan in which a lender agrees to lend a certain amount of funds to the borrower who uses his equity in his home as a collateral. HELOC is different from a conventional home equity loan because the borrower does not receive the entire amount of the credit up front, but uses a line of credit to borrow funds as needed (but not to exceed the credit limit). HELOC is very similar to a credit card, but it is backed-up by the borrower’s real estate.

Home Equity Tax Deduction as of 2017

Prior to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, homeowners who took out home equity loans could deduct from their adjusted gross income (on Schedule A) the interest on a Home Equity Loan or HELOC up to $100,000. This was called the Home Equity Tax Deduction.

Home Equity Tax Deduction Eliminated Starting Tax Year 2018

As a result of the 2017 tax reform (the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017), the Home Equity Tax Deduction was completely eliminated. In fact, the deduction was eliminated for both, new and existing borrowers (unlike the home mortgage deduction).

Home Equity Tax Deduction Elimination May Impact 2018 Individual Tax Returns

While the precise tax impact of the elimination of the Home Equity Tax Deduction may vary based on your precise tax situation, it can be reasonably supposed that the end of this deduction may result in a larger amount of taxpayers taking standard deduction rather than trying to itemize their deductions. This will be especially true since, in 2018, the standard deduction will double in size.

Specified Domestic Entity: Closely-Held Test | 8938 Lawyer & Attorney

In a previous article, I introduced the key term of the Specified Domestic Entity (“SDE”) Definition for corporations and partnerships that may be required to file FATCA Form 8938: “formed or availed of”. At that point, I stated that this term required that a business entity satisfies two legal tests. One of these tests is a Closely-Held Test.

Closely-Held Test: Background Information

Starting tax year 2016, certain business entities and trusts that are classified as SDEs may be required to file Form 8938 with their US tax returns. Treas. Reg. §1.6038D-6(a) states that “a specified domestic entity is a domestic corporation, a domestic partnership, or a trust described in IRC Section 7701(a)(30)(E), if such corporation, partnership, or trust is formed or availed of for purposes of holding, directly or indirectly, specified foreign financial assets.”

In a previous article, I discussed the fact that “formed or availed of” is a term of art which has no relationship to the actual finding of intent. Rather, in the context of corporations and partnerships, the “formed or availed of” requirement is satisfied if two legal tests are met. One of these tests is a Closely-Held Test, which is the subject of this article.

Closely-Held Test: General Requirements

In order to meet the closely-held test, a corporation or partnership must be closely held by a specified individual. There are two separate parts of this test that need to be analyzed: (a) who is considered to be a specified individual, and (b) what percentage of ownership meets the “closely held” requirement.

Closely-Held Test: Specified Individual

In another article, I already defined the concept of a Specified Individual. It is, however, worth re-stating the definition here again for convenience purposes. Treas. Reg. §1.6038D-1(a)(2) defines Specified individual as anyone who is: (I) US citizen; (ii) resident alien of the United States for any portion of the taxable year; (iii) nonresident alien for whom an election under 26 U.S.C. §6013(g) or (h) is in effect; or (iv) nonresident alien who is a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico or a section 931 possession.

Closely-Held Test: Ownership Percentage for Corporations and Partnerships

The ownership requirement of the Closely-Held Test is explained in Treas. Reg. §1.6038D-6(b)(2) with respect to both, corporations and partnerships. A domestic corporation is considered to be “closely held” if “at least 80 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock of the corporation entitled to vote, or at least 80 percent of the total value of the stock of the corporation, is owned, directly, indirectly, or constructively, by a specified individual on the last day of the corporation’s taxable year.” Treas. Reg. §1.6038D-6(b)(2)(I).

A domestic partnership is “closely held” if “at least 80 percent of the capital or profits interest in the partnership is held, directly, indirectly, or constructively, by a specified individual on the last day of the partnership’s taxable year.” Treas. Reg. §1.6038D-6(b)(2)(ii).

It is important to emphasize that the 80% threshold is met not only through direct ownership, but also through indirect and constructive ownership. So, one must closely look at the attribution rules of 26 U.S.C. §267 to determine whether the Closely-Held Test is met. Moreover, the constructive ownership rules for the purposes of the Closely-Held Test also contain an additional provision for the addition of spouses of individual family members.

Contact Sherayzen Law Office for Experienced Help with US International Tax Compliance Requirements for Corporations and Partnerships

If you are a minority or a majority owner of a corporation or partnership that either operates outside of the United States or has foreign assets, contact Sherayzen Law Office for professional help with US international tax compliance requirements. Our firm is specializes in the are of US international tax law. We can Help You!

Contact Us Today to Schedule Your Confidential Consultation!

Specified Domestic Entity: Formed or Availed Of | FATCA Lawyer & Attorney

We are continuing our series of articles on the Specified Domestic Entity definition. In previous articles, I already explained what entities are considered to be domestic and what kind of foreign assets are included in the Specified Foreign Financial Assets. In this article, I would like to introduce the key part of the definition of a Specified Domestic Entity: formed or availed of.

Due to the fact that there is a significant difference in treatment of trusts versus business entities (partnerships and corporations), I will analyze these two types of entities separately. In this article, I will focus solely on introducing the concept of Formed or Availed Of as it applies to partnerships and corporations.

Formed or Availed Of: Context

It is first useful the remember the context in which the clause “Formed or Availed Of” arises.  Treas. Reg. §1.6038D-6(a) defines a Specified Domestic Entity as “a domestic corporation, a domestic partnership, or a trust described in 26 U.S.C. §7701(a)(30)(E), if such corporation, partnership, or trust is formed or availed of for purposes of holding, directly or indirectly, specified foreign financial assets” (italics added).

Thus, the concept of “formed or availed of” is the key part to the definition of a Specified Domestic Entity.

Formed or Availed Of: Main Legal Test

It may seem to a person unfamiliar with Form 8938 that Formed or Availed Of concept implies some sort of a factual finding of intent. This first impression is not correct.

On the contrary, Formed or Availed Of concept has nothing in common with the actual intent of the parties who formed the business entity. Rather, the IRS established a very specific legal test to determine if a business entity is formed or availed of for purposes holding specified foreign financial assets.

The Formed or Availed Of Test is in reality a combination of two legal tests found in Treas. Reg. §1.6038D-6(b). An entity is considered to be formed or availed of for purposes of holding specified foreign financial assets if: (1) the corporation or the partnership is closely held (the “Closely-Held Test”), AND (2) the corporation or the partnership meets the Passive Income or Passive Assets threshold requirement (the “Passive Test”). See Treas. Reg. §1.6038D-6(b). Please, note that both tests needs to be satisfied in order for a business entity to be considered as formed or availed of for purposes of holding specified foreign financial assets.

In future articles, I will explore the Closely-Held Test and the Passive Test in more detail.

Contact Sherayzen Law Office for Professional Help Concerning US International Tax Compliance Requirements for Owners of US and Foreign Businesses

If you are an owner of a foreign business or a US domestic business which owns assets overseas, you should contact Sherayzen Law Office for professional help concerning relevant US tax compliance requirements. We have helped US business owners around the world, and We can Help You!

Contact Us Today to Schedule Your Confidential Consultation!

Specified Individual | FATCA International Tax Lawyers and Attorneys

Specified Individual is a key tax term that must be correctly understood in order to properly identify the persons who are required to file FATCA Form 8938. In this brief article, I will describe the general definition of a Specified Individual for Form 8938 purposes.

Specified Individual: FATCA Form 8938 Background

In 2010, one of the most important events in modern history of US taxation happened – the passage and signing of the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act or FATCA. FATCA completely revolutionized the entire landscape of international tax law, elevating the international exchange of tax-related and account-related information to an unprecedented level. FATCA also created a brand-new requirement called Form 8938.

Form 8938 requires US taxpayers to report to the IRS their Specified Foreign Financial Assets (“SFFA”) together with the taxpayers’ US tax returns. Prior to tax year 2016, only a Specified Individual was required to report his SFFA to the IRS. Starting tax year 2016, a Specified Domestic Entity is also required to disclose its SFFA on Form 8938.

Specified Individual Definition

Treas. Reg. §1.6038D-1(a)(2) defines a “specified individual” as anyone who is: (I) US citizen; (ii) resident alien of the United States for any portion of the taxable year; (iii) nonresident alien for whom an election under 26 U.S.C. §6013(g) or (h) is in effect (i.e. nonresident alien who makes an election to be treated as a resident alien in order to file a joint US tax return); or (iv) nonresident alien who is a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico or a section 931 possession (as defined in Treas. Reg. §1.931-1(c)(1) – i.e. Guam, American Samoa and Northern Mariana Islands).

Resident alien includes anyone who is a US permanent resident or meets the substantial presence test.

Contact Sherayzen Law Office for Help With Form 8938 If You Are a Specified Individual

If you are a specified individual who has undisclosed foreign accounts or any other SFFA, you should contact Sherayzen Law Office as soon as possible to explore your offshore voluntary disclosure options. Sherayzen Law Office is a highly experienced international tax law firm that specializes in offshore voluntary disclosures, including OVDP, Streamlined Compliance Procedures (both Streamlined Domestic Offshore Procedures and Streamlined Foreign Offshore Procedures), Delinquent FBAR Submission Procedures, Delinquent International Information Return Submission Procedures and Reasonable Cause (so-called Noisy) Disclosures.

We have helped hundreds of US taxpayers all around the globe to bring their US tax affairs into full compliance with US tax laws, and We can Help You! Contact Us Today to Schedule Your Confidential Consultation!

Specified Domestic Entity: Domestic Entity | FATCA Lawyer & Attorney

This is the second article from the series of articles concerning the definition of a Specified Domestic Entity. Today, I will explore what business entities are considered to be “Domestic”.

Specified Domestic Entity Background Information

Specified Domestic Entity is a new category of FATCA Form 8938 filers. Under FATCA, Form 8938 has to be filed with a US taxpayer’s tax return in order to report his Specified Foreign Financial Assets (“SFFA”). Prior to tax year 2016, Form 8938 was applicable only to individual US taxpayers. Starting tax year 2016, however, Specified Domestic Entities are required to file From 8938 as long as the total value of their SFFA meets the filing threshold.

Definition of a Domestic Entity for the Purposes of FATCA Form 8938

For the purposes of FATCA Form 8938, whether a corporation or a partnership is considered “domestic” is determined under the general definition found in 26 U.S.C. §7701(a)(4): “the term ‘domestic’ when applied to a corporation or partnership means created or organized in the United States or under the law of the United States or of any State unless, in the case of a partnership, the Secretary provides otherwise by regulations.” Thus, while the definition of a domestic corporation is fairly straightforward, it is not always the case with respect to domestic partnerships.

It should also be remembered that an LLC is never taxed as an LLC under the US tax law. Rather, LLC can be taxed either as a partnership or a corporation; it can also be treated as a disregarded entity if there is only one owner of the LLC and the LLC never elected to be taxed as a corporation.

A trust is considered to be a “domestic trust” if it meets the 26 U.S.C. §7701(a)(30)(E). The tests under this section of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) can be fairly complex and may require additional analysis (see this article for further analysis).

Contact Sherayzen Law Office for Professional Help With FATCA Form 8938

If you need help with the FATCA Form 8938 compliance (including the definition of a Specified Domestic Entity), contact Sherayzen Law Office for professional help. Our experienced international tax team, headed by international tax attorney Eugene Sherayzen, Esq., will thoroughly analyze your case, determine whether you need to file Form 8938 and any other US international information returns, and prepare these forms for you. We can also help you with the voluntary disclosure of any of your offshore assets if you did not timely comply with your US tax obligations with respect to these assets.

Contact Us Today to Schedule Your Confidential Consultation!