Posts

Overcoming Late IRC Section 1041 Transfer Presumption | IRS Lawyer & Attorney

In a previous article, I discussed that a late IRC Section 1041 transfer between former spouses is presumed to be unrelated to the cessation of the marriage. This means that such a transfer may not be considered tax-free for US tax purposes. In this article, I would like to explain what a late IRC Section 1041 transfer is and how to overcome the presumption that it is not related to the cessation of the marriage.

What is a Late IRC Section 1041 Transfer?

A transfer of property between ex-spouses is not taxable as long as it is “incident to divorce”. 26 U.S.C. §1041(a)(2). Temporary regulations state that such a transfer of property will be considered as incident to divorce as long as it occurs within one year of the date of the cessation of marriage or if this transfer is related to the cessation of marriage. Treas Reg §1.1041-1T(b), Q&A-6.

As I indicated in a previous article, a transfer of property is related to the cessation of marriage if it is done pursuant to a divorce or separation instrument and “occurs not more than 6 years after the date on which the marriage ceases”. Treas Reg §1.1041-1T(b), Q&A-7. If the transfer of property between ex-spouses occurs after six years of the cessation of marriage, then it is considered a late IRC Section 1041 transfer. Id.

Late IRC Section 1041 Transfer: Presumption that the Transfer if Not Related to Marriage

A late IRC Section 1041 transfer gives rise to a presumption that the transfer is not related to the cessation of marriage. Id. In other words, if an ex-spouse transfers a property to another ex-spouse more than six years after the cessation of their marriage, then the IRS will assume that the transfer is not related to the marriage.

Late IRC Section 1041 Transfer: Rebuttal of the Presumption

Luckily for US taxpayers, this presumption is not absolute and can be rebutted. “This presumption may be rebutted only by showing that the transfer was made to effect the division of property owned by the former spouses at the time of the cessation of the marriage.” Id.

The temporary Treasury regulations emphasize that the presumption can be rebutted by establishing two facts. First, the transfer was made late “because of factors which hampered an earlier transfer of the property, such as legal or business impediments to transfer or disputes concerning the value of the property owned at the time of the cessation of the marriage”. Id. Second, “the transfer is effected promptly after the impediment to transfer is removed.” Id.

Late IRC Section 1041 Transfer: PLRs Indicate Anticipation of Transfer in a Divorce Decree as the Crucial Factor

The IRS has issued a number of Private Letter Rulings (“PLRs”) on the issue of a late IRC Section 1041 transfer. Overall, the PLRs seem to follow an important trend in determining whether a taxpayer is successful in his rebuttal of the aforementioned presumption.

The key factor that appears in these PLRs seems to be whether a transfer of property (or an option to transfer a property) was part of the divorce decree. In other words, the most important question is whether this transfer of property was anticipated by the terms of the divorce decree. If it was and there is a good justification for the delay of the transfer of property, then the IRS is likely to rule that Section 1041 applies and the transfer would be deemed tax-free for federal income tax purposes.

Of course, it is highly important that a tax attorney review the situation to determine the likelihood that the IRS will agree on both points: anticipation of transfer in the divorce decree and the good reason for the delay of the transfer.

Contact Sherayzen Law Office for Professional Help Concerning Late IRC Section 1041 Transfers

If you are engaged in a divorce or you are an attorney representing a person who is engaged in a divorce, contact Sherayzen Law Office for experienced help with respect to taxation of transfers of property to an ex-spouse as well as other tax consequences of a divorce proceeding.

Shakira Tax Evasion is Reportedly Investigated by Spain | Tax Law News

On January 23, 2018, the Spanish Newspaper based in Madrid “El País” broke the news that the Colombian Singer Shakira (full name Shakira Isabel Mebarak) is being reportedly investigated by the Spanish tax authorities for tax evasion. Let’s explore the alleged Shakira tax evasion investigation in more detail.

Alleged Shakira Tax Evasion Investigation is Centered Around Spanish Tax Residency

At the core of the alleged investigation of potential Shakira tax evasion lies the concept of tax residency. Under the tax laws of Spain, a person who resides in Spain for at least 183 days during a calendar tax year may generally be considered a Spanish tax resident. As such, he would be required to disclose his worldwide income on a Spanish tax return.

It should be noted (as Sherayzen Law Office has pointed out in the past) that Spain is a very strict tax jurisdiction in many aspects, especially when it comes to tax evasion. In fact, it is the only country in the European Union which has a form similar to the IRS Form 8938 – Spanish Modelo 720.

Alleged Shakira Tax Evasion Investigation: 2011-2014 Tax Residency of Shakira in Question

El País reported that the Spanish tax authorities focused their investigation of Shakira on tax years 2011 through 2014. The singer has claimed that she was resident of the Bahamas at that time. Shakira’s lawyer stated that Shakira lived in several places over the years due to her lifestyle as an international singer and has been in full compliance with tax laws of all relevant jurisdictions.

The tax authorities reportedly reached a different conclusion – that Shakira was a Spanish tax resident during the years 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014. It is not clear whether the alleged conclusion was arrived at using direct evidence or indirect evidence. El País, for example, stated that the Spanish Tax Agency investigators went to her hairdresser in Spain to establish that Shakira lived in Spain.

It should be pointed out that Shakira officially declared herself as a Spanish tax resident in 2015 due to her marriage with the Spanish soccer player Gerard Pique.

Paradise Papers Could Have Prompted the Investigation of Potential Shakira Tax Evasion

The alleged Shakira Tax Evasion investigation also has an interesting twist. It appears that it could have been prompted by the famous Paradise Papers in November of 2017.

The Paradise Papers is a collection of 13.4 million of files that were stolen from the client files of Appleby law firm, a Singapore-based trust company, as well as company registries of nineteen different jurisdictions.

According to the Paradise Papers, Shakira transferred some or all of her intellectual property and trademarks to Tournesol, Ltd., (“Tournesol”) a company registered in Malta in 2009. Shakira is the sole shareholder of this company. Tournesol increased its capital by 31 million euros through an interest-free loan agreement with ACER Entertainment, a related company owned by Shakira and registered in Luxembourg.

Alleged Shakira Tax Evasion Investigation: Potential Penalties

Shakira’s estimated net worth is $200 million. This means that her tax fraud case will involve large numbers, possibly in the millions of dollars.

It appears that if Shakira is found guilty of tax fraud that is in excess of 600,000 euros, she could be facing from two to six years in prison for each count of tax fraud. Moreover, she could be facing a fine of six times the amount of underpaid tax. It should be pointed out that the charges will most likely focus on the years 2012-2014, because 2011 appears to be barred by the Spanish statute of limitations.

Shakira’s celebrity status will not have any impact on the Spanish tax authorities. In fact, she now joined a list of many celebrities who have been investigated by the Spanish Tax Agency, including Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo.

First Quarter 2018 IRS Underpayment Interest Rates | Tax Lawyer MN

On December 5, 2017, the IRS announced that the First Quarter 2018 IRS underpayment interest rates and overpayment interest rates will remain the same as they were in the last quarter of 2017. This means that, the First Quarter 2018 IRS underpayment interest rates and overpayment interest rates will be as follows: On December 5, 2017, the IRS announced that the First Quarter 2018 IRS underpayment interest rates and overpayment interest rates will remain the same as they were in the last quarter of 2017. This means that, the First Quarter 2018 IRS underpayment interest rates and overpayment interest rates will be as follows:

four (4) percent for overpayments (three (3) percent in the case of a corporation);
four (4) percent for overpayments (three (3) percent in the case of a corporation);
four (4) percent for underpayments; six (6) percent for large corporate underpayments; and one and one-half (1.5) percent for the portion of a corporate overpayment exceeding $10,000.

The Internal Revenue Code requires that the rate of interest be determined on a quarterly basis. For taxpayers other than corporations, the overpayment and underpayment rate is the federal short-term rate plus 3 percentage points. Generally, in the case of a corporation, the underpayment rate is the federal short-term rate plus 3 percentage points and the overpayment rate is the federal short-term rate plus 2 percentage points. The rate for large corporate underpayments is the federal short-term rate plus 5 percentage points. The rate on the portion of a corporate overpayment of tax exceeding $10,000 for a taxable period is the federal short-term rate plus one-half (0.5) of a percentage point.

The rate on the portion of a corporate overpayment of tax exceeding $10,000 for a taxable period is the federal short-term rate plus one-half (0.5) of a percentage point.

The First Quarter 2018 IRS underpayment interest rates and overpayment interest rates were computed based on the federal short-term rate determined during October of 2017 to take effect on November 1, 2017, based on daily compounding.

There are two principal applications for the First Quarter 2018 IRS underpayment interest rates in the context of US international tax law. First, the First Quarter 2018 IRS underpayment interest rates are used to calculate interest on the additional tax liability that has arisen as a result of filing amended federal tax returns.  This is also true with respect to tax returns that are amended as part of the OVDP or the Streamlined Domestic Offshore Procedures voluntary disclosure package.

Second, the First Quarter 2018 IRS underpayment interest rates are relevant to calculation of a PFIC (Passive Foreign Investment Company) interest on PFIC tax imposed on “excess distribution” under the default IRC Section 1291 PFIC calculation method.

IRS AI Software to Analyze Tax Data | IRS Tax Lawyer Minneapolis

On November 18, 2016, Mr. Benjamin Herndon, the current IRS director for research and analytics, confirmed the recent rumors that the IRS AI Software is being tested to help IRS agents find patterns of tax noncompliance.

The idea is to supplement human analysis of data with the IRS AI software that would analyze any piece of data not only by itself, but also in conjunction with the other data available to the IRS. This way, the IRS AI Software is expected to analyze a very large amount of various data to identify tax noncompliance patterns.

This means that the IRS currently plans to use artificial intelligence for pattern recognition and visualization of data that would help IRS revenue agents uncover tax noncompliance. It is possible that the IRS AI software will even analyze a particular taxpayer’s characteristics in the context of a taxpayer’s behavior to uncover any discrepancies and potential tax noncompliance.

I believe that this is just the first step that the conservative agency is making. In the near future, one can foresee that the IRS AI software will start taking on more and more tasks such as conducting correspondence audits, certain automatized communications with taxpayers, analysis of data during a field audit (the IRS AI Software can be used most effectively during the audits of large corporations which have huge amounts of data), IRS customer support, international tax compliance (particularly analysis of data collected through FATCA and FBARs) and other vital IRS functions. Most likely, the decisions associated with penalty imposition and the negotiation of offer in compromise will rest with human IRS agents for now.

Finally, the biggest immediate impact of the IRS AI software is likely to be felt in the ability of the IRS to more effectively implement US tax laws and conduct more audits due to the fact that the IRS revenue agents will now be able to devote less time to audit analysis and more time to enforcement of tax laws.

In sum, the US taxpayers should be ready for the impending improved ability of the IRS to identify tax noncompliance and conduct more audits due to increased efficiency which will be introduced by the IRS AI Software.