Partnership Tax Lawyers St Paul | Partnerships: Required Taxable Year

Under the U.S. tax laws, partnership income and expenses flow through to each partner in a partnership, at a partnership’s tax year-end. Generally, the tax year of a partnership must conform to the tax years of its partners. In some situations, however, a partner, or multiple partners, and the partnership itself may have different tax years, there is a potential for income deferral.

While legitimate income deferral is allowed under the U.S. tax laws, the IRS has rules in place to prevent excessive deferral of partnership income. These rules are explained briefly below in three successive steps. A partnership must apply each rule in chronological order, and the first tax year that meets all of the criteria in a specific rule will be the required tax year for the partnership (subject to certain exceptions allowed by the IRS).

Three-Step Analysis

1) Majority partners’ tax year

In general, if one partner owns more than 50% of the partnership capital and profits, then that partner’s taxable year will apply to the partnership. Similarly, if a group of partners have the same taxable year and own more than 50% of the partnership capital and profits, then that shared taxable year will also apply to the partnership. Majority interest is generally determined on the first day of the partnership.

2) Principal partners’ tax year

If step 1 does not yield a majority interest tax year, then the tax year the principal partners who own more than a 5% interest of capital or partnership profits, will be used if they all have the same tax year.

3) Year with smallest amount of income deferred

If steps 1 and 2 do not yield a result, then the “least aggregate deferral rule” is used to determine the weighted-average deferral of partnership income by testing the tax year-ends of the partners. The tax year required to be selected under the test will be whichever tax year-end is calculated to yield the least amount of deferral of partnership income.

Example of the Three-Step Analysis

To illustrate, assume that Adam and Bob are equal partners, each owning a 50% share. Adam’s tax year ends August 31, while Bob uses the calendar year, December 31. Step 1 would determine that there is no majority interest because neither partner owns more than 50%, and Step 2 would show that neither partners have the same tax year (even though they are both considered to be principal partners owning more than 5%). Thus, the least aggregate deferral rule would be applied in this case.
Under the least aggregate deferral rule, to determine the weighted-average product, begin by counting forward from the end of one partner’s tax year to the end of the other partner’s tax year-end, and then vice versa. For example, counting forward from the end of Adam’s tax year (August 31) to the end of Bob’s (December 31) is four months. Then, the number of months is multiplied by the partnership percentage interest, to determine a weighted-average product. Multiplying four by the partnership interest of 0.5 equals a product of two (the aggregate deferral). Counting forward from the end of Bob’s tax year to the end of Adam’s, determines that eight months will be deferred. Multiplying eight by .50 equals a product of four. Since the product of two under Adam’s August 31 tax year is less than the product of four under Bob’s December 31 tax year, Adam’s tax year-end will also be the tax year-end for the partnership itself.


Described above are the basic rules for determining the required tax year for partnerships. In some cases, it may be possible to be granted an exception from the general rules. These options however often depend upon persuading the IRS of the necessity of adopting a different tax year than would be available under the standard rules. Often, complex legal rules and case law are involved, so it is advisable to seek legal counsel. Furthermore , individual partners may need specific guidance relating to partnership taxation scenarios. Sherayzen Law Office can assist you with these matters.

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Tax Rates on Capital Gains and Qualified Dividends through 2012

Pursuant to the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 (the “Act”), which was singed into law on December 17, 2010, the tax cuts on capital gains and qualified dividends have been extended through the tax year 2012.

Generally, long-term capital gains of individuals will be taxed at a maximum rate of 15% through the tax year 2012.  The same is true for the qualified dividends received by individuals; this means that these dividends will be taxed at the same rates as long-term capital gains through the tax year 2012 (rather than being taxed as part of a taxpayer’s ordinary income at the relevant tax bracket).

Capital Gains and Losses: Tax Implications for Individuals and C-Corporations

Capital gains and losses defined

Capital gains and losses result from the taxable realized sale or exchange of capital assets. In general, capital assets include investments (such as stocks and real estate) and fixed assets, as opposed to personal-use property.

Capital gains result when the sale or exchange price is greater than the adjusted basis of the capital asset. Conversely, capital losses occur when the adjusted basis is higher than the sale or exchange price, and certain expenses associated with the sale may be added to the loss. The holding period of the capital asset being sold or exchanged will determine whether the capital gain or loss is long-term (held for more than a year) or short-term (held for less than a year).

Netting Capital Gains and Losses (Individual taxpayers)

Each taxable year, capital gains and losses are aggregated or “netted” on Schedule D. First, long-term capital gains and losses are netted. Second, short-term capital gains and losses are netted. Four possible scenarios will result from this two-step process:

Scenario A: A long-term gain and short-term gain
Scenario B: A long-term gain and short-term loss
Scenario C: A long-term loss and short-term gain
Scenario D: A long-term loss and short-term loss

In scenario A, the short-term gain will be taxed with the taxpayer’s ordinary income at his or her marginal rate. For the long-term capital gain, the favorable long-term capital gains tax rate will apply, depending upon the taxpayer’s tax bracket.

In scenario B, there are two possible outcomes depending upon which result is larger, the loss or the gain. If the short-term loss is greater than the long-term gain, a net short-term loss will result, and up to $3,000 can be used to offset other income, with additional amounts can be carried forward to subsequent tax years. Alternatively, if the long-term gain is larger than the short-term loss, then a net long-term gain will result, and the favorable long-term capital gains tax rates will apply.

In scenario C, there are two possible outcomes depending upon which result is larger, the loss or the gain. If the long-term loss is larger than the short-term gain, then a net long-term loss will result, and (as with scenario B) up to $3,000 can be used to offset ordinary income. Any unused amount above $3,000 can be carried forward to subsequent years as long-term loss. Alternatively, if the short-term gain is larger than the long-term loss, then a net short-term gain will result, and it will be taxed at the taxpayer’s marginal rate.

In scenario D, there are several possible outcomes. First, if the total long-term and short-term losses combined total $3,000 or less, then the amount may be used to offset ordinary income. However, if the total amount of short-term losses exceed $3,000, then the first $3,000 of short-term loss will be applied to offset other income, and any remainder will be carried forward to subsequent years as a long-term loss. If the short-term loss is less than $3,000, then that amount will be applied to offset ordinary income, and any amount of available long-term loss making up the difference between the short-term loss applied and $3,000 will also be used to offset ordinary income (with the additional, unused amounts carried forward).

Capital Gains and Losses (C Corporations)
C corporations, unlike individuals, do not receive favorable tax rate on capital gains. Capital gains must be included as part of ordinary income, in their entirety.

Further, capital losses must be used only to offset capital gains, and are non-deductible against ordinary income for C corporations. Net capital losses can be carried back to the three preceding years (and are applied in chronological order, beginning with the earliest tax year) provided the corporation has capital gains to offset. Additionally, corporate taxpayers may carry forward the capital loss five years from the year of loss, again provided that there are capital gains to offset. Carryforwards expire after the fifth year. Importantly, all losses carried back or forward are considered to be short-term.

Offsetting Capital Gains and Losses
Are you a taxpayer interested in benefiting from the capital gains and losses tax rules? Do you have questions about selling capital assets such as stocks or real estate for tax purposes, and how to best time your transactions in order to pay less taxes? Are you concerned about how new capital gains and loss tax changes may affect your situation?

Sherayzen Law Office can guide you with all of your capital gains and losses questions, and help you plan ahead so that you pay less taxes.

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Fee Agreement Arrangements with Tax Lawyers in St. Paul: 5 Most Important Issues

In this article, I will discuss five most important issues that you need to know before you sign a fee agreement with tax lawyers in St. Paul.

1. How is the lawyer’s fee paid? There are three main models of payment that lawyers use: hourly fee, contingency fee, and flat fee. The hourly fee is the most common form of tax lawyer compensation and it is fairly simple – the tax attorney is paid only based on the time he spends on the case. If you’re paying your tax lawyer by the hour, the agreement should set out the hourly rates of the tax attorney and anyone else in this attorney’s office who might work on the case. The contingency fee arrangement, where the tax attorney takes a percentage of the amount the client wins at the end of the case, is almost never used by tax attorneys in St. Paul. In the unlikely case that this latter type of fee arrangement is used, the most important issue to understand is whether the tax lawyer deducts the costs and expenses from the amount won before or after you pay the lawyer’s percentage. Obviously, you will pay more in attorney fees if your tax lawyer deducts the litigation costs based on the latter scenario (i.e. after you pay the lawyer’s fee). Finally, in a flat fee arrangement, you pay an agreed-upon amount of money for a project. For example, you pay $3,000 to your tax attorney to file delinquent FBARs (Reports on Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts) for the past five years. While a flat fee arrangement is possible in a small project, it is generally disliked by tax lawyers in St. Paul because it often lacks the necessary flexibility to account for the client’s individual legal situation. Usually, some sort of an additional payment arrangement is built into such fee agreements to make sure that the balance between the client’s legal needs and the tax attorney’s fees is maintained.

Remember, usually, you will have to pay out-of-pocket expenses (e.g. long-distance calls, mailing costs, photocopying fees, lodging, etc.) and litigation costs (such as court filing fees) in addition to your tax lawyer’s fees.

2. Does the agreement include the amount of the retainer? Most tax lawyers in St. Paul require their client to pay a retainer. Retainer can mean two different fee arrangements. First, retainer may be the amount of money a client pays to guarantee a tax attorney’s commitment to the case. Under this arrangement, the retainer is not a form of an advance payment for future work, but a non-refundable deposit to secure the lawyer’s availability. Second, a retainer is simply the amount of money a tax attorney asks his client to pay in advance. In this scenario, the lawyer usually deposits the retainer in a client trust account and withdraws money from it for the work completed according to the fee agreement. The fee agreement should specify the amount of the retainer and when the lawyer can withdraw money form the client trust account (usually, on a monthly basis).

3. How often will you be billed? Most tax attorneys in St. Paul bill their clients on a monthly basis. Sometimes, however, when the project is not large, the fee agreement will specify that you will be billed upon completion of the case. In a flat-fee scenario, it is likely that the client will be obligated to pay either a half or even the whole amount immediately as a retainer. It is wise for a client to insist in paying some part of the fee upon completion of the case to retain a degree of control over the case completion.

4. What is the scope of the tax attorney’s representation? Most tax lawyers in St. Paul will insist on defining their obligations in the fee agreement. The most important issue here is to state what the tax attorney is hired for without defining it either too narrowly or too broadly. Usually, a fee agreement should specify that a new contract should be signed if you decide to hire this tax lawyer to handle other legal matters.

If you are hiring a large or a mid-size law firm, beware that the partners in a law firm often delegate some or all of their obligations to their associates or even their staff. While the partners retain full responsibility for the case, there is a danger that important parts of it may be delegated to far less experienced associates. Besides the potential quality issues, there is also a concern that you would be paying a large hourly fee for a first-year associate’s work. It is important to insist that the fee agreement specifies what, if any, type of work is being delegated to the associates, the corresponding billing rate of each associate involved, and who carries the responsibility for the whole case.

5. Who controls what decisions? Whether this information should be included in the fee agreement really depends on a case and on an attorney. Generally, tax attorneys in St. Paul let their clients make the important decisions that affect the outcome of the case (such as: acceptance or rejection of the IRS settlement offer, commencement of a lawsuit, business decisions, et cetera). All of the decisions with respect to the legal issues (such as: where to file a lawsuit, what motions should be filed, what negotiation tactics should be employed, how to structure a business transaction from a tax perspective, etc.) are usually taken by the tax lawyers. If there are any changes to this arrangement (for example, you want your lawyer to make certain decisions with the respect to the outcome of the case), you should insist that these modifications be reflected in the fee agreement.

Generally, before you sign the fee agreement, tax lawyers in St. Paul will discuss with you many more topics than what is covered in this article. The five issues explained here, however, are crucial to your understanding of how the tax relationship with your tax attorney will work. Before you sign the fee agreement with your tax lawyer, you should ask at least these five questions and make sure that the answers are complete and to your satisfaction.

IRS Statute of Limitations: Claiming a Tax Refund

Generally, a taxpayer may file a claim for a tax refund of an overpayment of any tax within three years from the time the tax return was filed with the IRS or two years from the time the tax was paid to the IRS, whichever period is later. If no tax return was filed with the IRS, the claim may also be made within two years from the date that the tax was paid to the IRS. See 26 U.S.C. §6511(a).

The statute spells out numerous exceptions to this general rule. For example, pursuant to 26 U.S.C. §6511(d)(1), a taxpayer may file a claim within 7 years if the tax refund pertains to a bad debt under section 166 or 832(c) or in connection with a loss from a worthless security under section 165(g).

Therefore, even though the majority of situations are resolved by the general rule, it is prudent to consult your tax attorney to see if your situation fits into one of the exceptions.

Call NOW Sherayzen Law Office to discuss your tax situation with a tax attorney!