FBAR Maximum Account Value Determination | FBAR Tax Lawyer & Attorney

Determination of the FBAR maximum account value is a problem with which every FBAR filer has to deal. In this article, I would like to provide the main guidelines for the determination of the FBAR maximum account value.

FBAR Maximum Account Value Determination: Background Information

The Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts or FBAR requires each filer to disclose his financial interest in or signatory authority or any other authority over foreign bank and financial accounts to the IRS. As part of this disclosure, the filer must calculate and report the maximum account value for each of his foreign accounts on his FBAR.

FBAR Maximum Account Value Determination: Definition of Highest Value

FinCEN defines the maximum value of an account for FBAR purposes as “a reasonable approximation of the greatest value of currency or nonmonetary assets in the account during the calendar year.” In other words, the IRS does not expect you to always get the highest possible value. A reasonable approximation of this value will do if the exact highest value is not possible to determine.

FBAR Maximum Account Value Determination: Usual Problems

There are two main problems that each FBAR filer faces whenever he tries to identify the maximum account value for FBAR purposes. The first and most obvious problem is the determination of the highest account value. How does one determine the highest value for a bank account? What about a securities account where stocks fluctuate all the time? What about a precious metals account which has investments in different precious metals?

Second, FBAR requires that all amounts be stated in US dollars. Hence, an issue arises with respect to proper currency conversion – i.e. what is the proper currency exchange rate? Should the spot rates be used? Or December 31 exchange rates?

Let’s discuss each of these problems in more depth.

FBAR Maximum Account Value Determination: Methodology

Determination of maximum account value depends to a certain degree on the type of an account for which the filer is trying to determine this value. There is no question that, with respect to checking and savings bank accounts, the IRS wants you to use the full-year statements to determine the day on which the highest value was achieved for each of these accounts. This is a simple and effective method.

Determining the maximum value of a securities account is much harder, because securities fluctuate on a daily basis. For this reason, the IRS allows you to rely on periodic account statements to make this determination, especially end-of-year statements. This method is allowed only as long as the statements fairly approximate the maximum value during the calendar year.

Even this method, however, is often insufficient when one deals with mixed-currency accounts, mixed-investment accounts, mixed-metal accounts, et cetera. These situations should be handled on a case-by-case basis by your international tax attorney.

Let’s illustrate the complexity of the issues involved here by a relatively simple example. Generally, an end-of-year statement for an investment account is a good approximation of the maximum value of the account. If, however, there was a withdrawal of funds from the account following a major sale of investments, then the end-of-year statement cannot be relied upon. Instead, one should try a different method to approximate the highest value. One possibility is to use a reliable and known financial website for valuing the remaining assets on the date of the sale plus the proceeds from the sale of investments. The method, however, may fail if the highest value of investments was at the beginning of the year, not the date of sale.

FBAR Maximum Account Value Determination: Currency Conversion

Unlike the identification of the highest account value with its various complications, the currency conversation part of the FBAR maximum account value determination is fairly straightforward. All filers must use the end-of-year FBAR rates published by the Treasury Department. These rates are officially called “Treasury Financial Management Service rates”, but they are commonly called “FBAR rates” by US international tax lawyers. The FBAR rates are division rates, not the multiplication ones. This is standard in US international tax law.

Hence, for the currency conversion purposes, you need to identify the currency in which your account is nominated, find the appropriate FBAR conversion rate for the relevant year and divide your highest balance by the relevant FBAR rate. For your convenience, Sherayzen Law Office also publishes FBAR rates on its website.

Contact Sherayzen Law Office for Professional Help With Your FBAR Preparation

If you are required to file FBARs, contact Sherayzen Law Office for professional help. We have helped hundreds of US taxpayers to comply with their FBAR obligations, and we can help you!

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Reducing Your FBAR Penalties

FBAR (FinCEN Form 114 formerly Form TD F 90-22.1) penalties can be absolutely draconian. However, with a help of an experienced international tax attorney, they do not have to be so brutal.

Unfortunately, the IRS, accountants and even many lawyers present an overly simplistic view of the FBAR penalty structure. They start out with the potential criminal penalties and absolutely outrageous willful penalties and they usually end there by arguing that a non-compliant taxpayer should enter into the OVDP program.

What many tax professionals do not discuss is the immense complexity of the FBAR penalty structure that offers various chances to reduce and, sometimes, even eliminate your FBAR penalties through establishing non-willfulness and various mitigation guidelines.

This is a discussion that a tax professional must have with his client; otherwise, the client will not get the full picture of his case and cannot make an informed decision with respect to his voluntary disclosure options.

Notice that the potential for reduction of the FBAR penalties that exists under the current law is not the same as chimerical schemes that abound the internet. On the contrary, this is a serious discussion of what your potential FBAR penalties may be and what is the likelihood of success.

In some case, mitigation of penalties is a real possibility while, in others, entering the OVDP program may constitute a better choice. The important argument at the core of this essay is that the taxpayer should know about all of the options before the decision to the OVDP is made – i.e. the taxpayer has a chance to make a fully-informed decision, not a fear-driven one.

Contact Sherayzen Law Office to Discuss the FBAR Penalty Structure and Possibilities for Reducing Your FBAR Penalties

If you have undisclosed foreign assets, contact Sherayzen Law Office for legal help with your voluntary disclosure. Our experienced tax law firm will thoroughly review your case, estimate your FBAR penalties, analyze the potential for reduction of these penalties vis-a-vis entrance into the OVDP and present to you the available voluntary disclosure options so that you can make an informed decision.