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2023 FBAR Conversion Rates | FBAR International Tax Lawyer

The 2023 FBAR conversion rates are very important for your US international tax compliance. The reason for their importance is their relation to FBAR (FinCEN Form 114) and the IRS Form 8938. The 2023 FBAR and 2023 Form 8938 instructions both require that 2023 FBAR conversion rates be used to report the required highest balances of foreign financial assets on these forms (in the case of Form 8938, the 2023 FBAR conversion rates is the default choice, not an exclusive one). In other words, the 2023 FBAR conversion rates are used to translate foreign-currency highest balances into US dollars for the purposes of FBAR and Form 8938 compliance.

The U.S. Department of Treasury  already published the 2023 FBAR conversion rates online (they are called “Treasury’s Financial Management Service rates” or the “FMS rates”).

Since the 2023 FBAR conversion rates are highly important to US taxpayers, international tax lawyers and international tax accountants, Sherayzen Law Office provides the table below listing the official 2023 FBAR conversion rates (note that the readers still need to refer to the official website for any updates).

Country – Currency Foreign Currency to $1.00
AFGHANISTAN – AFGHANI70.54
ALBANIA – LEK93.23
ALGERIA – DINAR134.051
ANGOLA – KWANZA842.5
ANTIGUA – BARBUDA – E. CARIBBEAN DOLLAR2.7000
ARGENTINA – PESO827.75
ARMENIA – DRAM400
AUSTRALIA – DOLLAR1.472
AUSTRIA – EURO0.905
AZERBAIJAN – NEW MANAT1.7
BAHAMAS – DOLLAR1.0000
BAHRAIN – DINAR0.3770
BANGLADESH – TAKA113
BARBADOS – DOLLAR2.02
BELARUS – NEW RUBLEUNAVAILABLE*
BELGIUM – EURO0.905
BELIZE – DOLLAR2
BENIN – CFA FRANC 589
BERMUDA – DOLLAR1
BOLIVIA – BOLIVIANO6.86
BOSNIA – MARKA1.769
BOTSWANA – PULA13.387
BRAZIL – REAL4.852
BRUNEI – DOLLAR1.32
BULGARIA – LEV New1.769
BURKINA FASO – CFA FRANC589
BURUNDI – FRANC2850
CAMBODIA – RIEL4051
CAMEROON – CFA FRANC593.41
CANADA – DOLLAR1.326
CAPE VERDE – ESCUDO99.75
CAYMAN ISLANDS – DOLLAR0.82
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC – CFA FRANC593.41
CHAD – CFA FRANC593.41
CHILE – PESO880
CHINA – RENMINBI7.104
COLOMBIA – PESO3873
COMOROS – FRANC443.49
CONGO – CFA FRANC593.41
COSTA RICA – COLON519.22
COTE D’IVOIRE – CFA FRANC589
CROATIA – EURO0.905
CUBA – Chavito1
CUBA – PESO24
CYPRUS – EURO0.905
CZECH REPUBLIC – KORUNA21.731
DEM. REP. OF CONGO – FRANC2660
DENMARK – KRONE6.744
DJIBOUTI – FRANC177
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC – PESO57.9
ECUADOR – DOLARES1.0000
EGYPT – POUND30.9
EL SALVADOR – DOLARES1.0000
EQUATORIAL GUINEA – CFA FRANC593.41
ERITREA – NAKFA15
ESTONIA – EURO0.905
ESWATINI – LILANGENI18.427
ETHIOPIA – BIRR55.997
EURO ZONE – EURO0.905
FIJI – DOLLAR2.165
FINLAND – EURO0.905
FRANCE – EURO0.905
GABON – CFA FRANC593.41
GAMBIA – DALASI64
GEORGIA – LARI2.665
GERMANY – EURO0.905
GHANA – CEDI11.9
GREECE – EURO0.936
GRENADA – EAST CARIBBEAN DOLLAR2.7
GUATEMALA – QUETZAL7.815
GUINEA BISSAU – CFA FRANC589
GUINEA – FRANC8511
GUYANA – DOLLAR215
HAITI – GOURDE131.23
HONDURAS – LEMPIRA24.624
HONG KONG – DOLLAR7.811
HUNGARY – FORINT345.78
ICELAND – KRONA136.04
INDIA – RUPEE83.162
INDONESIA – RUPIAH15372.69
IRAN – RIAL42000
IRAQ – DINAR1308
IRELAND – EURO0.905
ISRAEL – SHEKEL3.619
ITALY – EURO0.905
JAMAICA – DOLLAR154
JAPAN – YEN141.47
JORDAN – DINAR0.708
KAZAKHSTAN – TENGE456.29
KENYA – SHILLING156.5
KOREA – WON1299.22
KOSOVO – EURO0.905
KUWAIT – DINAR0.307
KYRGYZSTAN – SOM89.062
LAOS – KIP20476
LATVIA – EURO0.905
LEBANON – POUND15000
LESOTHO – MALOTI18.427
LIBERIA – DOLLAR189
LIBYA – DINAR4.754
LITHUANIA – EURO0.905
LUXEMBOURG – EURO0.905
MADAGASCAR – ARIARY4564
MALAWI – KWACHA1700
MALAYSIA – RINGGIT4.59
MALDIVES – RUFIYAA15.42
MALI – CFA FRANC589
MALTA – EURO0.905
MARSHALL ISLANDS – DOLLAR1
MAURITANIA – OUGUIYA39.16
MAURITIUS – RUPEE43.87
MEXICO – PESO16.949
MICRONESIA – DOLLAR1
MOLDOVA – LEU17.25
MONGOLIA – TUGRIK3410.69
MONTENEGRO – EURO0.905
MOROCCO – DIRHAM9.855
MOZAMBIQUE – METICAL 63.25
MYANMAR – KYAT3380
NAMIBIA – DOLLAR18.427
NEPAL – RUPEE133.05
NETHERLANDS – EURO0.905
NETHERLANDS ANTILLES – GUILDER1.78
NEW ZEALAND – DOLLAR1.585
NICARAGUA – CORDOBA36.6
NIGER – CFA FRANC589
NIGERIA – NAIRA910
NORWAY – KRONE10.166
OMAN – RIAL0.385
PAKISTAN – RUPEE276.2
PALAU – DOLLAR1
PANAMA – DOLARES1
PAPUA NEW GUINEA – KINA3.727
PARAGUAY – GUARANI7249.99
PERU – SOL3.675
PHILIPPINES – PESO55.451
POLAND – ZLOTY3.924
PORTUGAL – EURO0.905
QATAR – RIYAL3.645
REP. OF N MACEDONIA – DINAR55.45
ROMANIA – NEW LEU 4.499
RUSSIA – RUBLE89.067
RWANDA – FRANC1250
SAO TOME & PRINCIPE – NEW DOBRAS22.142
SAUDI ARABIA – RIYAL3.75
SENEGAL – CFA FRANC589
SERBIA – DINAR105.92
SEYCHELLES – RUPEE13.473
SIERRA LEONE – LEONE22.7
SIERRA LEONE – OLD LEONE21.4
SINGAPORE – DOLLAR1.32
SLOVAK REPUBLIC – EURO0.905
SLOVENIA – EURO0.905
SOLOMON ISLANDS – DOLLAR8.065
SOMALI – SHILLING568
SOUTH AFRICA – RAND18.427
SOUTH SUDANESE – POUND1070
SPAIN – EURO0.905
SRI LANKA – RUPEE323.8
ST LUCIA – E CARIBBEAN DOLLAR2.7
SUDAN – SUDANESE POUND830
SURINAME – GUILDER36.723
SWEDEN – KRONA10.031
SWITZERLAND – FRANC0.838
SYRIA – POUND8585
TAIWAN – DOLLAR30.641
TAJIKISTAN – SOMONI10.93
TANZANIA – SHILLING2505
THAILAND – BAHT34.33
TIMOR – LESTE DILI1
TOGO – CFA FRANC589
TONGA – PA’ANGA2.26
TRINIDAD & TOBAGO – DOLLAR6.749
TUNISIA – DINAR3.064
TURKEY – NEW LIRA29.547
TURKMENISTAN – NEW MANAT3.491
UGANDA – SHILLING3775
UKRAINE – HRYVNIA38.089
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES – DIRHAM3.673
UNITED KINGDOM – POUND STERLING0.786
URUGUAY – PESO39.02
UZBEKISTAN – SOM12333.77
VANUATU – VATU116
VENEZUELA – BOLIVAR SOBERANO35.841
VENEZUELA – FUERTE (OLD)248832
VIETNAM – DONG24260
WESTERN SAMOA – TALA2.653
YEMEN – RIAL528
ZAMBIA – NEW KWACHA 25.71
ZIMBABWE – RTGS5801.47

*Note #1: As of the time of this article, the Department of Treasury still has not published the FBAR rate for Belarus. Please, consult the Department of the Treasury for clarification.

Child FBAR Obligations | FBAR Tax Lawyer & Attorney

Child FBAR filing obligations is a topic that comes up fairly often in my practice. In this short essay, I will discuss whether a child is required to file an FBAR and how it should be done.

Child FBAR Obligations: What is FBAR

FBAR is a common abbreviation for the Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts, officially called FinCEN Form 114, Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts (used to be TD F 90-22.1). This form is used by US persons to report to the IRS a financial interest in or signatory authority over foreign financial accounts.  This is one of the most important forms that US taxpayers need to file in order to comply with their US international tax law requirements. A failure to file an FBAR when required may result in an imposition of severe IRS penalties.

Child FBAR Obligations: No Age Limitations

All US Persons are potentially subject to the FBAR requirement with no regard for their age. In other words, minor children with foreign accounts that satisfy the FBAR filing threshold must file FBARs. Even a newborn infant may have to file an FBAR. See BSA Electronic Filing Requirements For Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts (FinCEN Form 114), p. 6.

Child FBAR Obligations: How to file a Child’s FBAR

While a child is responsible for the filing of his own FBAR, the child’s parent, guardian or other legally responsible person must file the FBAR for the child if the child is unable to do it himself.  Id. In such cases, the responsible person, parent or guardian must sign the FBAR on behalf of the child as “Parent/Guardian filing for child”.

Contact Sherayzen Law Office for Professional Help with Your Child FBAR Obligations

Parents often overlook their children’s FBAR obligations.  Time and again, I discover that otherwise fully-compliant taxpayers completely neglected their children’s FBARs.

If your child has not filed the required FBARs or he needs help complying with his current FBAR obligations, contact Sherayzen Law Office for professional help.  We are a highly-experienced team of international tax professionals led by an international tax attorney, Mr. Eugene Sherayzen.  We have helped hundreds of people around the world with their FBAR obligations, including offshore voluntary disclosures, and we can help you!

Contact Us Today to Schedule Your Confidential Consultation!

Tax Treaty Election FBAR Obligations | FBAR Lawyer & Attorney

In my practice, I often receive calls from people who are confused about their FBAR obligations.  A recent call raised an important issue of whether a tax treaty election may affect one’s FBAR obligations.  In this brief article, I would like to address this issue of tax treaty election FBAR obligations.

Tax Treaty Election FBAR Obligations: What is FBAR ?

FinCEN Form 114, Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts (used to be TD F 90-22.1) is commonly known as FBAR, the Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts. This form is used by US persons to report to the IRS a financial interest in or signatory authority over foreign financial accounts.  This is one of the most important forms that US taxpayers need to file in order to comply with their US international tax law requirements. A failure to file an FBAR when required may result in an imposition of severe IRS penalties.

Tax Treaty Election FBAR Obligations: US Person

In another article, I already addressed in great detail the definition of a US Person.  Here, I will just briefly state the categories of persons who fall under the definition of a US Person for FBAR purposes:

(1) US citizens;

(2) residents of the United States;

(3) an entity, such as a corporation, partnership and a limited liability company, created or organized in the United States or under the laws of the United States;

(4) a trust formed under the laws of the United States; and

(5) an estate formed under the laws of the United States.

Tax Treaty Election FBAR Obligations: US Person & Tax Treaty Election

Now, we have come to the critical point and the main subject of this essay: would a tax treaty election to be treated as a resident of another country under a valid income tax treaty affect one’s FBAR obligations? In other words, can you elect out of being a US Person by making a tax treaty election?

The main general answer is no – a tax treaty does not and cannot affect FBAR filing obligations. See Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations—Reports of Foreign Financial Accounts, 76 Fed. Reg. 10, 234 & 238 (Feb. 24, 2011); also, IRM 4.26.16.2.1.2(6) (11-06-15).  If a person meets the definition of a resident alien under IRC §7701(b) (i.e. he meets the FBAR definition of a US Person), even if he is not treated as a resident for income tax purposes due to an election under an income tax treaty, he will still be subject to FBAR.

The main exception to this rule would be an abandonment of US permanent residency through a tax treaty election, because it would affect the definition of a resident alien under IRC §7701(b).

Contact Sherayzen Law Office for Help with Your FBAR Compliance and FBAR Voluntary Disclosure

Sherayzen Law Office specializes in FBAR compliance and Offshore Voluntary Disclosures that involve prior FBAR noncompliance. We have helped hundreds of US taxpayers around the world with their FBAR issues, and we can hep you!

Contact Us Today to Schedule Your Confidential Consultation!

Form 114 US Person Definition | FBAR Tax Lawyer

FinCEN Form 114 US Person definition is a highly important component of FBAR and US international tax compliance.  In this essay, I will discuss in detail the FinCEN Form 114 US Person definition and highlight some common issues that arise with respect to this definition.

Form 114 US Person Definition: What is Form 114 and What is its Relation to FBAR ?

FinCEN Form 114, Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts (used to be TD F 90-22.1) is commonly known as FBAR, the Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts. This form is used by US persons to report to the IRS a financial interest in or signatory authority over foreign financial accounts.  This is one of the most important forms that US taxpayers need to file in order to comply with their US international tax law requirements. A failure to file an FBAR when required may result in an imposition of severe IRS penalties.

Form 114 US Person Definition: Only US Persons are Required to File FBARs

It is important to understand that only “US Persons”, as defined by the IRS for the FBAR compliance purposes, are required to file FBARs.  What is the legal basis for this and where does this term “US Person” come from?

BSA (Bank Secrecy Act) §5314(a) states that the Secretary of the Treasury shall require a “resident or citizen of the United States or a person, in, and doing business in, the United States, to keep records, file reports”.  This seems like the FBAR requirement may apply a hugely broad group of people (far beyond US residents and citizens), especially if one takes into account that the “United States” is defined to include all 50 states, the District of Columbia, the territories, and insular possessions of the United States and the Indian lands as defined in the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. 31 CFR §§1010.350(b) and 1010.100(hhh).  The territories and possessions of the United States include American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the US Virgin Islands (see BSA Electronic Filing Requirements for Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts (FinCEN Form 114), p. 5.).

Despite this initial impression, the actual definition that we use today is much smaller than what is mandated by §5314(a) and it is thanks to BSA §5314(b)BSA §5314(b) states that the IRS has the discretion to interpret what this provision actually means and who is exempt from the FBAR filing requirement.

Armed with this authority, on February 26, 2010, the IRS issued proposed regulations, which for the first time defined that only “US Persons” needed to file FBARs. This is why we discuss the definition of a US Person when we discuss who is required to file FBARs.

Form 114 US Person Definition: Who is a Person ?

Before we turn to the definition of a “US Person”, we need to discuss who is considered to be a “Person” for the Form 114 purposes. Under 31 CFR §1010.350(b), a “person” includes:  natural persons (US citizens and US residents) and entities, including but not limited to: corporations, partnerships, trusts, or limited liability companies formed under the laws of the United States.  This definition includes entities disregarded for tax purposes (as long as they are US persons).

Additionally, pension and welfare plans are also US entities that need to file FBARs. See Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations—Reports of Foreign Financial Accounts, 76 Fed. Reg. 10, 234 (Feb. 24, 2011); IRM 4.26.16.2.1.3(3) (06-24-21).  Even though the regulations do not mention it, the Form 114 instructions expand the “person” definition to estates.  It is important to note that, according to page 6 of the FBAR electronic filing instructions, an executor of an estate has a fiduciary obligation to file FBAR on behalf of the estate and on behalf of the decedent in the year following the decedent’s death.

Form 114 US Person Definition: General Definition of a US Person

The definition of a US person includes the following categories of persons:

(1) US citizens;

(2) residents of the United States;

(3) an entity, such as a corporation, partnership and a limited liability company, created or organized in the United States or under the laws of the United States;

(4) a trust formed under the laws of the United States; and

(5) an estate formed under the laws of the United States.

Let’s analyze each of these categories in more detail.

Form 114 US Person Definition: US Citizens

All US citizens are subject to the FBAR filing requirement, even minor children.  The general definition of a US citizen is contained in 8 USC §1401.

Form 114 US Person Definition: US Residents

All US residents are subject to FBAR filing requirements.  Pursuant to 31 CFR §1010.350(b)(2), the definition of “US residents” follows the definition of a resident alien under §7701(b) with one modification – the definition of the “United States” still follows 1010.100(hhh) described above. Also, see IRM 4.26.16.2.1.2 (11-06-15).

There are three classes of US residents: (1) US permanent residents; (2) persons who satisfied the Substantial Presence Test; and (3) persons who elected to be treated as US residents.  Let’s discuss each of these classes of US residents in more detail.

1.  US Permanent Residents (the “Green Card Test”)

A person is considered a US person if at any time during the calendar year the person has been lawfully granted the privilege of residing permanently in the United States under the immigration laws and such status has not been revoked. 26 USC §§7701(b)(1)(A)(i) and 7701(b)(6).

One of the most common issues occurs when a person has been issued a green card and he has not yet physically entered the United States. In such cases, this person would not be considered as a resident alien until he actually physically enters the United States. 26 USC §7701(b)(2)(A)(ii).  Once he enters the country, however, he becomes a US permanent resident and continues to be one until the green card is revoked or considered abandoned either judicially or administratively. See 26 CFR §301.7701(b)-1(b)(2) and 26 CFR §301.7701(b)-1(b)(3).

2.  Substantial Presence Test

Even if a person is not a US permanent resident, he may still be considered a US Person if he meets the IRC §7701(b)(3) substantial presence test.  In reality, there are two substantial presence tests.

The first substantial presence test is met if a person is physically present in the United States for at least 183 days during the calendar year. 26 USC §7701(b)(3).  The second substantial presence test is met if two conditions are satisfied: (1) the person is present in the United States for at least 31 days during the calendar year; and (2) the sum of the days on which this person was present in the United States during the current and the two preceding calendar years (multiplied by the fractions found in §7701(b)(3)(A)(ii)) equals to or exceeds 183 days. 26 USC 7701(b)(3)(A).

Let’s focus on the mechanics of the second calculation.  The way to determine whether the 183-day test is met is to add: (a) all days present in the United States during the current calendar year (i.e. the year for which you are trying to determine whether the Substantial Presence Test is met) + (b) one-third of the days spent in the United States in the year immediately preceding the current year + (c) one-sixth of the days spent in the United States in the second year preceding the current calendar year. See 26 USC §7701(b)(3).

Note that the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) provides a number of important exceptions to the Substantial Presence Test.  In this article, I am just providing the general rule.

3.  Election to be Treated as a US Resident Alien

A person who makes the first-year election to be treated as a US resident alien pursuant to §7701(b)(4) is a US Person for FBAR purposes.   Note, however, that this rule applies only to elections made under this provision.  A nonresident alien spouse of a US person who makes an election under the IRC §§6013(g) and 6013(h) to be treated as a resident alien will not be considered as a US person for the FBAR compliance purposes.  This is an important divergence between the income tax and FBAR rules.

Form 114 US Person Definition: US Entities, Trusts & Estates

Entities (corporations, partnerships, limited liability companies, et cetera), trusts and estates created, organized or formed in the United States or under the laws of the United States are generally considered to be US Persons for FBAR purposes.

A foreign subsidiary of a US parent will not have any FBAR obligations as long as it is not formed, created or organized under the laws of the United States. However, the US parent company may be required to include the foreign accounts of its foreign subsidiary on its FBAR. 31 CFR §1010.350(e)(2)(ii).

Moreover, a foreign entity organized in and under the laws of a foreign country will not be subject to the FBAR requirements even if it elects to be treated as a US entity for US tax purposes. See Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations—Reports of Foreign Financial Accounts, 76 Fed. Reg. 10, 234-238 (Feb. 24, 2011).

Contact Sherayzen Law Office for Professional Help with Your FBAR Compliance

If you need questions concerning your FBAR compliance or a voluntary disclosure concerning your prior FBAR noncompliance, contact Sherayzen Law Office for professional help!  Our firm specializes in FBAR compliance and offshore voluntary disclosures to remedy prior FBAR noncompliance.

We have helped hundreds of clients around the world and we can help you! Contact Us Today to Schedule Your Confidential Consultation!