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2018 FinCEN Form 114 Deadline | FBAR International Tax Lawyer & Attorney

The 2018 FinCEN Form 114 deadline is approaching fast. It is definitely one of the most important deadlines that US taxpayers face in 2019. It is also one of the most confusing ones, because this form is not filed with a federal income tax return. Moreover, some taxpayers mistakenly treat 2018 FinCEN Form 114 as something separate from the 2018 FBAR. In order to clarify these issues, Sherayzen Law Office is publishing this notice on the 2018 FinCEN Form 114 deadline to US taxpayers.

2018 FinCEN Form 114 Deadline: Relationship Between FBAR and FinCEN Form 114

FBAR is an acronym for FinCEN Form 114, the Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts. In other words, these are two names of the same form. Also, it is useful to know that, prior to mandatory e-filing, the official name of FBAR was TD F 90-22.1 and it was filed on paper. The name of the form changed once the e-filing form was created.

2018 FinCEN Form 114 Deadline: Pre-2016 Deadline

For the years preceding 2016, the US government chose a very strange deadline for FBARs – June 30 of each year. For example, the 2012 FBAR was due on June 30, 2013. No filing extensions were allowed.

The last FinCEN Form 114 that followed the June 30 deadline was the 2015 FinCEN Form 114; its due date was June 30, 2016. This fact is still relevant for offshore voluntary disclosures and IRS FinCEN Form 114 audits due to the six-year FBAR statute of limitations. The June 30 deadline will continue to be relevant as late as June 30, 2022.

2018 FinCEN Form 114 Deadline: Changes Starting 2016 FinCEN Form 114

In order to resolve the problem of confusing deadlines, the US Congress changed the FinCEN Form 114 deadline as part of the Surface Transportation and Veterans Health Care Choice Improvement Act of 2015 (the “Act”). Under Section 2006(b)(11) of the Act, starting 2016 FinCEN Form 114, US Persons must e-file FBARs by the due date of that year’s tax return (i.e. usually April 15), not June 30.

Furthermore, during the transition period (which continues to this date), the IRS granted to US taxpayers an automatic extension of the FinCEN Form 114 filing deadline to October 15. Taxpayers do not need to make any specific requests in order for an extension to be granted.

In other words, starting 2016 FinCEN Form 114, the Act adjusted the FinCEN Form 114 due date to coincide with the federal income tax filing deadlines. This is the case even if federal law requires a different filing date. For example, in situations where the tax return due date falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday, the IRS must delay the due date until the next business day; the FBAR deadline will follow suit and also shift to the next business day.

2018 FinCEN Form 114 Deadline

Based on the current law, the 2018 FinCEN Form 114 deadline will be April 15, 2019. In other words, your 2018 FinCEN Form 114 has to be e-filed by and including that date. Automatic extension to October 15, 2019, is available.

2018 FinCEN Form 114 Deadline: Who Must File by April 15, 2019

A US Person must file his 2018 FinCEN Form 114 by April 15, 2019, as long as his foreign bank and financial accounts meet the FinCEN Form 114 filing requirements.

US Person” has special significance in the context of FinCEN Form 114. This term is very similar to the concept of “US tax resident”, but there are some differences between these terms. In general, a US Person includes a US citizen, a US permanent resident and any person who satisfies the Substantial Presence Test. The term also covers any business entity, trust and estate formed under the laws of the United States.

Moreover, “US Person” also applies to certain non-resident aliens who make first-year election under IRC §7701(b)(4). This term, however, does not apply to persons who make the first-year election pursuant to IRC §6013(g) or (h) election. See this article for a more detailed discussion of individual FinCEN Form 114 filers.

2018 FinCEN Form 114 Deadline: the Trigger for the FinCEN Form 114 Requirement

The FinCEN Form 114 requirement is triggered whenever a US person has a financial interest in or signatory authority or any other authority over foreign bank and financial accounts the highest aggregate value of which exceed $10,000. The term “accounts” is defined very broadly to include pretty much any custodial relationship. For example, this terms includes: foreign bank accounts, foreign fixed-deposit accounts, foreign investment accounts, foreign mutual funds, foreign precious metals accounts, foreign life insurance policies, foreign retirement accounts and so on and so forth.

A PPF account in India is a reportable foreign account for FinCEN Form 114. The French Assurance Vie accounts, Malaysian health insurance investment accounts, Australian Superannuation Fund accounts, Colombian building contract accounts, Argentinian “participation” accounts, German “building” accounts, Spanish mutual fund accounts, Swiss financial products are all reportable bank and financial accounts for FinCEN Form 114 purposes; so are Goldmoney and BullionVault accounts.

Contact Sherayzen Law Office for Professional Help With Your 2018 FinCEN Form 114 Deadline

Sherayzen Law Office is an international tax law firm that specializes in FinCEN Form 114 compliance. We have filed thousands of FBARs for our clients as part of their annual tax compliance as well as offshore voluntary disclosures. We can help You!

Contact Us Today to Schedule Your Confidential Initial Consultation!

FinCEN Form 114 Filers | FBAR Tax Lawyer & Attorney Minnesota Minneapolis

The Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts, FinCEN Form 114 (a/k/a FBAR) is arguably the most important information return concerning foreign accounts. Its importance stems first and foremost from the extremely severe Form 114 penalties, which range from criminal penalties of up to 10 years in prison to willful and even non-willful penalties that may exceed the value of the penalized accounts. Given these penalties, it is important to understand who the FinCEN Form 114 filers are – i.e. who is required to file Form 114?

For today’s purposes, I will concentrate only on the individual FinCEN Form 114 filers.

FinCEN Form 114 Filers: General Definition

At the center of the definition of FBAR filer is a United States person (“US person”). A US person must file FinCEN Form 114 if he has a financial interest in or signatory authority or any other authority over any foreign financial accounts and the aggregate maximum value of these accounts exceeds $10,000 at any time during the calendar year.

FinCEN Form 114 Filers: Main Categories of US Persons

Under the 31 CFR 1010.350(b), the definition of a US Person is very specific and consists of five main categories: (1) a citizen of the United States; (2) a resident of the United States; (3) an entity created or organized in the United States or under the laws of the United States; (4) a trust formed under the laws of the United States; and (5) an estate formed under the laws of the United States. As I stated above, today, I will focus only on categories 1 and 2; I will deal with business, trust and estate FinCEN Form 114 filers in other articles.

FinCEN Form 114 Filers: US Citizens

This is by far the easiest category of FinCEN Form 114 filers to analyze. If an individual is a US citizen and has foreign accounts that exceed the filing threshold, then, he must file Form 114.

FinCEN Form 114 Filers: Definition of “Residents of the United States”

In the context of FBAR compliance, a “resident of the United States” has a special meaning which corresponds for the most part, but not exactly, to the US income tax definition of a tax resident. There are three distinct categories of individuals who fall within the definition of a “resident of the United States” for FBAR purposes: US permanent residents, persons who satisfy the Substantial Presence Test, and certain non-resident aliens who make the first-year election to be treated as US tax residents. Additionally, Internal Revenue Code (“IRC”) §7701(b)(2) contains a number of provisions that regulate when individuals are considered to be US residents for FBAR (as well as income tax) purposes during the first-year and the last-year of residency.

FinCEN Form 114 Filers: US Permanent Residents

The first category of residents of the United States is not complex. All US Permanent are US persons and, if they have foreign accounts that exceed the FBAR filing threshold, also FinCEN Form 114 filers.

FinCEN Form 114 Filers: Substantial Presence Test

The second category of residents of the United States for FBAR purposes are the individuals who satisfied the Substantial Presence Test described in IRC §7701(b)(3). Under the Substantial Presence Test, an individual is a US person if: (1) he was present in the United States (as defined under 31 CFR 1010.100(hhh)) for at least 31 days during the calendar year in question; and (2) the sum of the number of days on which such individual was present in the United States during the current year and the two preceding calendar years equals or exceeds 183 days. The amount of days in the two preceding years should multiplied by the applicable multiplier as follows: first preceding year – one-third; second preceding year – one-sixth.

For example, if we are trying to determine the tax residency for the tax year 2019, we will take all the sum of the days an individual was physically present in the United States in 2019, one-third of the days in 2018 and one-sixth of the days in 2017. If the total amount equals or exceeds 183 days, then this individual is a US person for FBAR purposes.

It should be pointed out that this is the general rule. There are numerous exceptions to the Substantial Present Test, including the famous “closer connection exception” and certain visa exemptions. Hence, you should retain an international tax attorney to analyze your specific set of facts in order to determine whether you should be considered a US person for FBAR purposes.

FinCEN Form 114 Filers: First-Year Residency Election

The third category of residents of the United States for FBAR purposes includes all individuals who made a first-year election on their US tax returns to be treated as residents pursuant to IRC §7701(b)(4). Generally, we are talking about a situation where a person does not have a green card, does not meet the Substantial Presence Test and comes sometime during a year. In other words, this person is not a US person under any other category, but decides to make an election to be treated as a US tax resident.

In order to make this election, the person must satisfy certain requirements outlined in IRC §7701(b)(4). Failure to meet any of these requirements will result in a person becoming a non-resident alien for the entire year.

It is also important not to confuse the IRC §7701(b)(4) election with the IRC §6013(g) or (h) election. In the latter cases, the elections do not affect the residency status for FBAR purposes.

FinCEN Form 114 Filers: First- and Last-Year Residency Provisions of IRC §7701(b)(2)

IRC §7701(b)(2) is not technically a fourth category of a resident of the United States. Rather, this section regulates when US residency actually starts or ends once it is acquired or lost under other categories. Nevertheless, it is important to understand and be aware of these provisions.

FinCEN Form 114 Filers: Tax Treaties & FBAR Residency Status

Most tax treaties contain what are known as “tie-breaker provisions” for determining a person’s tax residency. Sometimes, a person can use these provisions to escape the income tax residency rules. The IRS has specifically stated that, as long as one of the residency test of IRC §7701(b) is met, the tax treaty non-residency determination does not affect the residency status of a person for FBAR purposes.

Contact Sherayzen Law Office for the Determination of Whether You and Your Family Should Be Considered FinCEN Form 114 Filers

If you have foreign bank accounts, you should contact Sherayzen Law Office for professional help concerning whether you need to file an FBAR. Sherayzen Law Office is a highly-experienced international tax law firm which has helped hundreds of US taxpayers with their FBAR issues. We can help You!

Contact Us Today to Schedule Your Confidential Consultation!