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Family Re-Attribution Limitation Under §318 | International Tax Lawyers

This article explores the second limitation on the IRC (Internal Revenue Code) §318 re-attribution rule – family re-attribution limitation.

Family Re-Attribution Limitation: General §318 Re-Attribution Rule

The general §318 re-attribution rule states that a constructively-owned corporate stock should be treated as actually owned for the purpose of further re-attribution of stock to other persons. §318(a)(5)(A). This re-attribution should occur with respect to other persons considered related persons under §318.

As I stated in another article, unless checked, the general §318 re-attribution rule may ultimately cause persons completely unrelated to the actual owners of corporate stock to be considered as constructive owners of this stock. For this reason, the IRS imposed a number of limitations on this re-attribution rule. One of the limitations concerns specifically §318 family attribution rules.

Family Re-Attribution Limitation: No Family Re-Attribution

Under §318(a)(5)(B), corporate stock constructively owned by a person pursuant to the §318 family attribution rules is not considered as owned by this person for the purpose of re-attributing stock ownership to another family member.

This rule is clear: stock attributed to one family member cannot be re-attributed for the second time to another family member. The idea of this rule is also very clear – to prevent re-attribution of stock to remote family members.

Family Re-Attribution Limitation: Examples

Let’s look at a couple of hypothetical examples to gain deeper understanding of the family re-attribution limitation.

First hypothetical: grandfather GF owns 100 shares of X corporation. Under the family attribution rules, this ownership is attributed to GF’s son, A. However, due to §318(a)(5)(B), this constructively-owned stock cannot be attributed for the second time to A’s wife and A’s son.

Second hypothetical: X, a C-corporation has 200 shares outstanding; A owns 100 shares, S (A’s son) owns 40 shares and D (A’s daughter) owns 60 shares. Under §318(a)(1)(A)(ii): A actually owns 100 shares and constructively owns his children’s 100 shares; S actually owns 40 shares and constructively owns his mother’s 100 shares; D actually owns 60 shares and constructively owns her mother’s 100 shares.

However, due to the re-attribution limitations under §318(a)(5)(B), the shares A constructively owns are not re-attributed from one child to another. Hence, 40 shares of S are not re-attributed to D through their father’s constructive ownership of shares actually owned by S. Similarly, D’s 60 shares are not re-attributed to S through A’s constructive ownership of D’s shares.

Family Re-Attribution Limitation: Interaction with the §318 Option Attribution Rule

It is important to understand that §318(a)(5)(B) does not per se prohibit the re-attribution of stock to another family member. Rather, this re-attribution limitation only applies to stock constructively owned under the §318 family attribution rules. However, the stock may still be re-attributed to another family member through the operation of another rule such as the §318 option attribution rule.

The most prominent example of such a situation is situations where ownership of stock is imputed under both §318 family attribution rule and §318 option attribution rule at the same time. Under §318(a)(5)(D), if a stock is attributed under both, §318 family attribution rules and §318 option attribution rules, then the option rules take priority. This means that, if both rules apply, the option rule governs and the person is deemed to own stock under the option rule rather than under the family rule.

In situations where corporate stock is deemed to be owned under both, family and option attribution rules, the option rule will allow the re-attribution of stock to another family member. In such cases, §318(a)(5)(B) is powerless to stop the application of re-attribution due to the precedence of the option rules.

Family Re-Attribution Limitation: Example of the Option Rule Family Re-Attribution

Let’s look at an example to illustrate the §318 option attribution rule and the §318 family attribution rules interaction with respect to family re-attribution limitation. Let’s suppose that S, son of F, directly owns 100 shares of X, a C-corporation; F has an option to buy all 100 shares from S; D, F’s daughter and S’ sister, does not actually own any shares of X or a contract to buy any shares of X. The issue is whether D is deemed to own any shares of X.

F constructively owns all of his son’s shares of X under the family attribution rules and the option attribution rules. Normally, no shares would be attributed to D due to the family re-attribution limitations, but, in this case, F actually owns an option to buy all 100 shares. The option attribution rule holds preeminence over the family re-attribution limitation. Hence, F is deemed to own S’ shares under the option rule first and foremost; as a consequence, these shares are then re-attributed to D. Thus, D is treated as an owner of all of S’ 100 shares of X.

Family Re-Attribution Limitation: Advanced Summary of Family Attribution Rules

Now that we have a more advanced understanding of the family attribution rules and the limits placed on the family re-attribution limitations, we can modify our earlier definition of the §318 family attribution rules in the following manner: where A and B are family members within the meaning of §318(a)(1), A is deemed to own: (1) all corporate stocks actually owned by B; (2) all corporate stocks constructively owned by B under the §318 option attribution rules; and (3) all stocks constructively owned by B pursuant to §318(a)(2) – i.e. due to the fact that he is a beneficiary of a trust, a partner in a partnership or a shareholder of a corporation.

Contact Sherayzen Law Office for Professional Help With US International Tax Law Compliance

US international tax law is incredibly complex and the penalties for noncompliance are severe. This means that an attempt to navigate through the maze of US international tax laws without assistance of an experienced professional will most likely produce unfavorable and even catastrophic results.

Contact Sherayzen Law Office for professional help with US international tax law. We are a highly experienced, creative and ethical team of tax professionals dedicated to helping our clients resolve US international tax compliance issues. Led by our founder, Mr. Eugene Sherayzen (an international tax attorney), we have helped hundreds of clients with assets in over 70 countries around the world, and we can help you!

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Tampa Foreign Accounts Lawyer and Attorney | Florida Tax Lawyers

Tampa Foreign Accounts Lawyer is an interesting specialty among international tax lawyers who offer their foreign account tax compliance services to residents of Tampa, Florida. The term Tampa Foreign Accounts Lawyer does not simply refer to a lawyer who is physically located in Tampa, but also covers lawyers who reside outside of Tampa. Let’s explore why international tax lawyer Eugene Sherayzen of Sherayzen Law Office, Ltd., can be considered a Tampa Foreign Accounts Lawyer.

Tampa Foreign Accounts Lawyer Definition: Foreign Account Tax Compliance Services Offered to Residents of Tampa Florida

Obviously, the definition of a Tampa Foreign Accounts Lawyer includes all FBAR lawyers who are physically located in Tampa, Florida, and offer their tax services there. However, this definition also includes every international tax lawyer who offers out-of-state foreign account tax services to residents of Tampa.

Why is this the case? The answer is simple – it is the federal tax law, not local law, that requires foreign account tax compliance (with the exception of a few states like New York and California; the main requirements, however, come from federal tax law). This means that an international tax lawyer licensed to practice anywhere in the United States is qualified to help residents of Tampa with their US tax compliance requirements concerning foreign accounts (such as FBAR and FATCA Form 8938).

Tampa Foreign Accounts Lawyer Definition: Knowledge of US International Tax Law is Required

Having stated the definition of a Tampa Foreign Accounts Lawyer so broadly, I do not mean to imply that any lawyer can offer foreign account tax compliance services to Tampa residents. On the contrary, in order to help his clients, a Tampa Foreign Accounts Lawyer must be an international tax attorney who specializes in the area of foreign accounts tax compliance. Otherwise, the lawyer simply would not have the required expertise to practice in this area of law.

Tampa Foreign Accounts Lawyer: Modern Technologies Eliminated the Advantages of Hiring a Local Lawyer

There is still some hesitance on part of many taxpayers to retain the services of an out-of-state tax lawyer. This hesitance comes from a false myth that working with a local attorney is more convenient.

This myth is false for two reasons. First, the development of modern means of communication has completely resolved the communication problems of the past. Email, Video Skype Conferences, telephone and text messages make your out-of-state Tampa Foreign Accounts Lawyer as equally accessible as your local Tampa Foreign Accounts Lawyer.

Second, in reality, almost the entire course of communication between you and your local lawyer is going to be exactly the same as it would be between you and your out-of-state lawyer – i.e. email, telephone and even regular mail.

Sherayzen Law Office is Your Preferred Choice for Your Tampa Foreign Accounts Lawyer

Sherayzen Law Office is a highly experienced international tax law firm which specializes in the area of foreign account tax compliance. We have been helping our clients worldwide with their FBAR and FATCA issues for a very long time; in fact, we are one of the few firms which advised clients with respect to all major IRS voluntary disclosure programs, including 2009 OVDP, 2011 OVDI, 2012 OVDP, 2014 OVDP and Streamlined Submission Procedures (Domestic and Foreign). We can help you!

Contact Us Today to Schedule Your Confidential Consultation!