Overcoming Late IRC Section 1041 Transfer Presumption | IRS Lawyer & Attorney

In a previous article, I discussed that a late IRC Section 1041 transfer between former spouses is presumed to be unrelated to the cessation of the marriage. This means that such a transfer may not be considered tax-free for US tax purposes. In this article, I would like to explain what a late IRC Section 1041 transfer is and how to overcome the presumption that it is not related to the cessation of the marriage.

What is a Late IRC Section 1041 Transfer?

A transfer of property between ex-spouses is not taxable as long as it is “incident to divorce”. 26 U.S.C. §1041(a)(2). Temporary regulations state that such a transfer of property will be considered as incident to divorce as long as it occurs within one year of the date of the cessation of marriage or if this transfer is related to the cessation of marriage. Treas Reg §1.1041-1T(b), Q&A-6.

As I indicated in a previous article, a transfer of property is related to the cessation of marriage if it is done pursuant to a divorce or separation instrument and “occurs not more than 6 years after the date on which the marriage ceases”. Treas Reg §1.1041-1T(b), Q&A-7. If the transfer of property between ex-spouses occurs after six years of the cessation of marriage, then it is considered a late IRC Section 1041 transfer. Id.

Late IRC Section 1041 Transfer: Presumption that the Transfer if Not Related to Marriage

A late IRC Section 1041 transfer gives rise to a presumption that the transfer is not related to the cessation of marriage. Id. In other words, if an ex-spouse transfers a property to another ex-spouse more than six years after the cessation of their marriage, then the IRS will assume that the transfer is not related to the marriage.

Late IRC Section 1041 Transfer: Rebuttal of the Presumption

Luckily for US taxpayers, this presumption is not absolute and can be rebutted. “This presumption may be rebutted only by showing that the transfer was made to effect the division of property owned by the former spouses at the time of the cessation of the marriage.” Id.

The temporary Treasury regulations emphasize that the presumption can be rebutted by establishing two facts. First, the transfer was made late “because of factors which hampered an earlier transfer of the property, such as legal or business impediments to transfer or disputes concerning the value of the property owned at the time of the cessation of the marriage”. Id. Second, “the transfer is effected promptly after the impediment to transfer is removed.” Id.

Late IRC Section 1041 Transfer: PLRs Indicate Anticipation of Transfer in a Divorce Decree as the Crucial Factor

The IRS has issued a number of Private Letter Rulings (“PLRs”) on the issue of a late IRC Section 1041 transfer. Overall, the PLRs seem to follow an important trend in determining whether a taxpayer is successful in his rebuttal of the aforementioned presumption.

The key factor that appears in these PLRs seems to be whether a transfer of property (or an option to transfer a property) was part of the divorce decree. In other words, the most important question is whether this transfer of property was anticipated by the terms of the divorce decree. If it was and there is a good justification for the delay of the transfer of property, then the IRS is likely to rule that Section 1041 applies and the transfer would be deemed tax-free for federal income tax purposes.

Of course, it is highly important that a tax attorney review the situation to determine the likelihood that the IRS will agree on both points: anticipation of transfer in the divorce decree and the good reason for the delay of the transfer.

Contact Sherayzen Law Office for Professional Help Concerning Late IRC Section 1041 Transfers

If you are engaged in a divorce or you are an attorney representing a person who is engaged in a divorce, contact Sherayzen Law Office for experienced help with respect to taxation of transfers of property to an ex-spouse as well as other tax consequences of a divorce proceeding.

2018 Government Shutdown is the IRS Nightmare | IRS Lawyer & Attorney

A government shutdown is always bad for the normal functioning of federal agencies, but the 2018 government shutdown spells disaster for the IRS, especially if it lasts for a significant amount of time.

2018 Government Shutdown Comes at the Worst Time for the IRS

What makes the current 2018 government shutdown so bad is the timing. The shutdown comes just nine days before the tax season begins. For the IRS, the tax season is always the busiest time of the year.

Moreover, this year, the shutdown also comes right after a huge tax reform passed. Many of the provisions of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 still need to be implemented, the IRS software needs to be adjusted and the employees at the Call Centers need to be prepared to answer the questions of millions of Americans about the new tax laws.

2018 Government Shutdown Comes After Years of Budget Cuts

The 2018 government shutdown also comes after many years of the IRS budget cuts. Since 2010, the IRS lost more than $900 million in funding, eliminated 18,000 full-time positions and had to implement hiring freezes. Moreover, many IRS veterans are now retiring without being able to train proper replacement. This means that the IRS is gradually losing its best, highly-knowledgeable and experienced cadres – professionals who know how to enforce tax laws in an equitable manner. This unfortunate circumstance will inevitably have a profound impact on IRS ability to properly implement US tax laws in the future.

It is not only the professionals that the IRS is losing. The long years of budget cuts dramatically reduced the IRS ability to staff its call centers. Even before the shutdown, the IRS projected that, with its current budget, it will only be able to answer at best four calls out of every ten – i.e. the IRS said that it could answer only 40% of the calls, leaving 60% of Americans without any assistance.

Furthermore, the budget cuts came at a time when there was an unprecedented explosion of new tax laws, domestic and international, which have created an enormous demand for more IRS employees. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 is just the latest example of these new laws.

So far, the IRS has been able to more or less survive by cutting everything it could in the non-essential areas and relying on new technology to save costs. However, it does not appear that this is a sustainable situation in the future.

2018 Government Shutdown: Immediate Impact

The most immediate impact of the 2018 government shutdown will be the fact that only 43.5% of IRS employees will be coming to work on next week. 56.5% of the IRS workforce will be forced to stay at home.

While the IRS will continue to do “excepted activities” such as processing 2017 tax returns (this is a matter of life and death for the federal government), a number of its functions will be suspended.

Here is the list of the most common examples of the suspended activities: issuing refunds, processing of amended tax returns (Forms 1040X), conducting any audits or examinations, processing of non-electronic tax returns that do not include remittances, non-automated collections, legal counsel, planning, research, training, all development activities, most information systems functions, headquarters and administrative functions not related to the safety of life and protection of property, service center processing after the point of batching (i.e. Code & Edit, data transcription, error resolution, un-postables) and other activities. With respect to offshore voluntary disclosures, they are not likely to be processed while the government shutdown continues.

At this point, we can only wish that the government shutdown be over as soon as possible to minimize the negative impact it may have on the IRS, our nation and our fellow citizens.

Sherayzen Law Office will continue to monitor the situation.